Clinico-biochemical Profile of Biopsy-proven Minimal Change Disease in Adults from a Tertiary Care Center in South India

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2023 May 1;34(3):242-249. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.393997. Epub 2024 Jan 17.


Minimal change disease (MCD) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children, and in adults, it contributes to 10%-25% of NS. MCD in adults follows a slightly different course associated with increased incidence of steroid resistance, hematuria, and HTN. This is a prospective-record analysis study aimed to analyze the profile of MCD in adults, response to treatment, and relapse rates. A retrospective observational study was carried out and data were collected retrospectively from all biopsy-proven MCD patients between 2012 and 2018. A total of 86 adults were diagnosed to have biopsy-proven MCD. Of these, 32 were excluded due to insufficient data/lost for follow-up. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 22.0 was used for the statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis includes expression of all the explanatory and outcome variables in terms of frequency and proportions for categorical variables whereas in terms of mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables. Chi-square test was used to compare the age, gender, remission, renal failure and response of different drugs, treatment durations, comorbidity conditions, relapse episodes, and different types of infections based on the degree of proteinuria among study patients. A total of 54 biopsy-proven adult MCD patients were analyzed. The mean age of the patients studied was 36.67 years, with the oldest patient being 76 years. In the study group, 37 (68.5%) patients were male and 14 (31.5%) were female. In the study population, 20 (37%) were hypertensive, 3 (5.6%) were diabetic, and 10 (18.5%) had renal failure at presentation. On treatment, 52 out of 54 patients received steroids, of which 41 (75.9%) were steroid responsive, 6 (11.1%) steroid dependent, and 7 (13%) steroid resistant. The mean time for remission in steroidsensitive patients was 8.8 weeks. Among the steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant patients, 11 patients received calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), of which 3 were CNI resistant. In the study Group 1 patient received cyclophosphamide and two received rituximab. In the study population, two patients failed to achieve remission and one patient was initiated on hemodialysis and later lost for follow-up. Minimal change NS is a type of NS which is highly responsive to steroids with good prognosis in children. Adult MCD patients require a higher and prolonged course of steroid when compared to children. CNIs and rituximab form a promising second-line drug in patients who are steroid resistant/dependent. However, CNI dependency or relapse after stopping steroids is a concern.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biopsy
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nephrosis, Lipoid* / diagnosis
  • Nephrosis, Lipoid* / drug therapy
  • Nephrosis, Lipoid* / epidemiology
  • Nephrotic Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Nephrotic Syndrome* / drug therapy
  • Nephrotic Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Recurrence
  • Renal Insufficiency* / complications
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rituximab / therapeutic use
  • Steroids / therapeutic use
  • Tertiary Care Centers


  • Rituximab
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Steroids