Clinical Impact of In-Stent Calcification in Coronary Arteries: Optical Coherence Tomography Study

Am J Cardiol. 2024 Jan 15:214:115-124. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2023.12.060. Online ahead of print.


In-stent restenosis with neoatherosclerosis has been known as the predictor of target lesion revascularization (TLR) after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the impact of in-stent calcification (ISC) alone on clinical outcomes remains unknown since neoatherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography includes in-stent lipid and calcification. We aimed to assess the effect of ISC on clinical outcomes and clinical differences among different types of ISC. We included 126 lesions that underwent optical coherence tomography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention and divided those into the ISC group (n = 38) and the non-ISC group (n = 88) according to the presence of ISC. The cumulative incidence of clinically driven TLR (CD-TLR) was compared between the ISC and non-ISC groups. The impact of in-stent calcified nodule and nodular calcification on CD-TLR was evaluated using the Cox hazard model. The incidence of CD-TLR was significantly higher in the ISC group than in the non-ISC group (p = 0.004). In the multivariate Cox hazard model, ISC was significantly associated with CD-TLR (hazard ratio [HR] 3.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33 to 9.65, p = 0.01). In-stent calcified nodule/nodular calcification and in-stent nodular calcification alone were also the factors significantly associated with CD-TLR (HR 3.34, 95%CI 1.15 to 9.65, p = 0.03 and HR 5.21, 95%CI 1.82 to 14.91, p = 0.002, respectively). ISC without in-stent calcified nodule/nodular calcification, which was defined as in-stent smooth calcification, was not associated with CD-TLR. In conclusion, ISC was associated with a higher rate of CD-TLR. The types of calcifications that led to a high rate of CD-TLR were in-stent calcified nodule/nodular calcification and in-stent nodular calcification alone but not in-stent smooth calcification. In-stent calcified nodule and nodular calcification should be paid more attention.

Keywords: calcification; calcified nodule; in-stent restenosis; nodular calcification; optical coherence tomography.