Gene regulation in inborn errors of immunity: Implications for gene therapy design and efficacy

Immunol Rev. 2024 Mar;322(1):157-177. doi: 10.1111/imr.13305. Epub 2024 Jan 17.


Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) present a unique paradigm in the realm of gene therapy, emphasizing the need for precision in therapeutic design. As gene therapy transitions from broad-spectrum gene addition to careful modification of specific genes, the enduring safety and effectiveness of these therapies in clinical settings have become crucial. This review discusses the significance of IEIs as foundational models for pioneering and refining precision medicine. We explore the capabilities of gene addition and gene correction platforms in modifying the DNA sequence of primary cells tailored for IEIs. The review uses four specific IEIs to highlight key issues in gene therapy strategies: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (XHIGM), and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX). We detail the regulatory intricacies and therapeutic innovations for each disorder, incorporating insights from relevant clinical trials. For most IEIs, regulated expression is a vital aspect of the underlying biology, and we discuss the importance of endogenous regulation in developing gene therapy strategies.

Keywords: CGD; IPEX; XHIGM; XLA; gene regulation; gene therapy; genome editing; inborn errors of immunity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Agammaglobulinemia* / genetics
  • Agammaglobulinemia* / therapy
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked* / genetics
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked* / therapy
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Diseases* / genetics
  • Intestinal Diseases* / therapy