Characteristics and Prevalence of Staphyloma Edges at Different Ages in Highly Myopic Eyes

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2024 Jan 2;65(1):32. doi: 10.1167/iovs.65.1.32.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of staphyloma edges in highly myopic eyes and how they progress.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using baseline data and a longitudinal study with follow-up data from 256 patients (447 eyes) with high myopia, with a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.79 (0.78) years. Participants were divided into four age groups: children (<13), youth (13-24), mature (25-59), and elderly (>60). Ultrawide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography was used to analyze staphyloma edges, which were divided into four areas: nasal to the optic disc (OD), superior to the macula, inferior to the macula, and temporal to the macula.

Results: Staphylomas were significantly more prevalent in the mature (42.49%) and the elderly (51.35%) groups than in the children (13%) and youth (9%) groups. Staphyloma edges were predominantly superior to the macula in the mature and elderly groups. In contrast, staphylomas were rare in children and youth, with their edges mainly located nasal to the OD. The edges of staphylomas located superior and temporal to the macula were more likely to be associated with myopic traction maculopathy. During the follow-up period, 11 new staphyloma edges developed primarily in the mature group (64%). Additionally, 12 edges had an increased degree of protrusion over time, with most cases occurring in the mature (75%) group.

Conclusions: The prevalence and location of staphyloma edges show significant variations depending on age. As time progresses, staphyloma edges manifest at distinct sites and increase their protrusion, potentially playing a role in the emergence of fundus complications.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Myopia* / epidemiology
  • Optic Disk*
  • Prevalence
  • Scleral Diseases* / epidemiology