The breast cancer coagulome in the tumor microenvironment and its role in prognosis and treatment response to chemotherapy

J Thromb Haemost. 2024 May;22(5):1319-1335. doi: 10.1016/j.jtha.2024.01.003. Epub 2024 Jan 17.


Background: The procoagulant phenotype in cancer is linked to thrombosis, cancer progression, and immune response. A novel treatment that reduces the risk of both thrombosis and cancer progression without excess bleeding risk remains to be identified.

Objectives: Here, we aimed to broadly investigate the breast tumor coagulome and its relation to prognosis, treatment response to chemotherapy, and the tumor microenvironment.

Methods: Key coagulation-related genes (n = 35) were studied in a Norwegian cohort with tumor (n = 134) and normal (n = 189) tissue and in the Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 1052) data set. We performed gene set variation analysis in the Norwegian cohort, and in the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort, associations with the tumor microenvironment and prognosis were evaluated. Analyses were performed with cBioPortal, Estimation of Stromal and Immune cells in Malignant Tumors Using Expression Data, Tumor Immune Estimation Resource, the integrated repository portal for tumor-immune system interactions, Tumor Immune Single-cell Hub 2, and the receiver operating characteristic plotter. Six independent breast cancer cohorts were used to study the tumor coagulome and treatment response to chemotherapy.

Results: Twenty-two differentially expressed coagulation-related genes were identified in breast tumors. Several coagulome factors were correlated with tumor microenvironment characteristics and were expressed by nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment. PLAT and F8 were independent predictors of better overall survival and progression-free survival, respectively. F12 and PLAU were predictors of worse progression-free survival. The PROCR-THBD-PLAT signature showed a promising predictive value (area under the curve, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.81; P = 3.6 × 10-17) for combination chemotherapy with fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide.

Conclusion: The breast tumor coagulome showed potential in prediction of prognosis and chemotherapy response. Cells within the tumor microenvironment are sources of coagulome factors and may serve as therapeutic targets of coagulation factors.

Keywords: blood coagulation; breast cancer; chemotherapy; prognostic factors; tumor; tumor microenvironment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Blood Coagulation Factors / genetics
  • Blood Coagulation* / drug effects
  • Breast Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Breast Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Microenvironment*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Blood Coagulation Factors