Evaluation of antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity of brown algae (nizamuddinia zanardinii) in uterine (hela) and pancreatic cancer cell lines (paca-2)

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2024 Jan-Dec:43:9603271241227228. doi: 10.1177/09603271241227228.


Introduction: Pancreatic cancer and cervical cancer are among the most common cancers. Brown algae have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and immune-boosting properties. This study investigated the antioxidant properties and the effect of brown algae extract on pancreatic and uterine cancer cells.

Materials and methods: In this study, Cervical (Hela) and pancreas (Paca-2) cancer cell lines were examined. The algae materials were extracted by sequential maceration method and amount of fucoxanthin content in the sample was determined by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system. The cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of brown algae was measured by the MTT assay. All statistical calculations for comparing IC50 were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism software.

Results: the algal sample contained an average of 102.52 ± 0.12 μg of fucoxanthin per 100 g. IC50 for 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging activity for methanolic extract was 2.02 and 11.98 ± 0.13 respectively. Brown algae in all fractions inhibited cell growth and survival. In Hela cell lines, the methanolic extract was the most effective inhibitor, while in Paca cell lines, hexane and methanolic extracts were particularly potent. The methanolic extract was more toxic than other fractions on Hela and Paca cell lines.

Conclusion: This study highlights brown algae extracts strong anticancer effects on uterine and pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting its potential as a natural anticancer drug. Different fractions of the extract showed superior apoptotic and cytotoxic effects, with higher concentrations leading to increased apoptotic effects and reduced survival rates of cancer cells.

Keywords: Algae; antioxidant; cytotoxicity; pancreatic cancer; uterine cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents* / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents* / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Female
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Phaeophyceae*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Xanthophylls*


  • Antioxidants
  • fucoxanthin
  • Plant Extracts
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Xanthophylls