Advanced nano-based strategies for mRNA tumor vaccine

Acta Pharm Sin B. 2024 Jan;14(1):170-189. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2023.07.025. Epub 2023 Jul 29.


Tumor vaccine is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy by introducing tumor antigens into the body to activate specific anti-tumor immune responses. Along with the technological breakthroughs in genetic engineering and delivery systems, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) technology has achieved unprecedented development and application over the last few years, especially the emergency use authorizations of two mRNA vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has saved countless lives and makes the world witness the powerful efficacy of mRNA technology in vaccines. However, unlike infectious disease vaccines, which mainly induce humoral immunity, tumor vaccines also need to activate potent cellular immunity to control tumor growth, which creates a higher demand for mRNA delivery to the lymphatic organs and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Here we review the existing bottlenecks of mRNA tumor vaccines and advanced nano-based strategies to overcome those challenges, as well as future considerations of mRNA tumor vaccines and their delivery systems.

Publication types

  • Review