Ozonated Sunflower Oil (OSO) Alleviates Inflammatory Responses in Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis (AD)-Like Mice and LPS-Treated RAW 264.7 Cells

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Apr 28;34(4):765-773. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2310.10037. Epub 2024 Jan 12.


Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant molecule, is widely used as a complementary therapy for various skin diseases, including wound healing, pressure ulcers, diabetic foot, and infections. However, there is limited research on the effectiveness of ozone for atopic dermatitis (AD). Ozonated sunflower oil (OSO) is an active ingredient obtained from partially ozonated sunflower oil (SO). OSO markedly reduced the LPS-induced increase in IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO) levels in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Oxazolone (OXZ) was applied to hairless mice to induce AD-like skin symptoms and immune response. OSO significantly alleviated the OXZ-induced increases in the number of infiltrating mast cells, epidermal thickness, AD symptoms, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and filaggrin, as well as the serum levels of NO, IgE, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Furthermore, OSO inhibited the IL-4/STAT3/MAPK pathway and the expression of NF-κB. Our results suggest that OSO treatment could relieve AD-mediated skin damage through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, it can be used as a therapeutic agent against AD-related skin diseases.

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis (AD); Ozonated sunflower oil (OSO); RAW 264.7; TSLP; filaggrin; inflammation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Cytokines* / metabolism
  • Dermatitis, Atopic* / chemically induced
  • Dermatitis, Atopic* / drug therapy
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Filaggrin Proteins
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Interleukin-4 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Mast Cells / drug effects
  • Mast Cells / metabolism
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide* / metabolism
  • Oxazolone* / toxicity
  • Ozone*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Skin / drug effects
  • Skin / pathology
  • Sunflower Oil*
  • Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Ozone
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Cytokines
  • Oxazolone
  • Sunflower Oil
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • NF-kappa B
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Filaggrin Proteins
  • Interleukin-4
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents