Valid publication of names of two domains and seven kingdoms of prokaryotes

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2024 Jan;74(1). doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.006242.


The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) now includes the categories domain and kingdom. For the purpose of the valid publication of their names under the ICNP, we consider here the two known domains, 'Bacteria' and 'Archaea', as well as a number of taxa suitable for the rank of kingdom, based on previous phylogenetic and taxonomic studies. It is proposed to subdivide the domain Bacteria into the kingdoms Bacillati, Fusobacteriati, Pseudomonadati and Thermotogati. This arrangement reflects contemporary phylogenetic hypotheses as well as previous taxonomic proposals based on cell wall structure, including 'diderms' vs. 'monoderms', Gracilicutes vs. Firmicutes, 'Negibacteria' vs. 'Unibacteria', 'Hydrobacteria' vs. 'Terrabacteria', and 'Hydrobacterida' vs. 'Terrabacterida'. The domain Archaea is proposed to include the kingdoms Methanobacteriati, Nanobdellati and Thermoproteati, reflecting the previous division into 'Euryarchaeota', 'DPANN superphylum' and 'TACK superphylum'.

Keywords: International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes; domain; kingdom; valid publication.

MeSH terms

  • Archaea* / genetics
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Base Composition
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Fatty Acids* / chemistry
  • Phylogeny
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Fatty Acids