Development of a Smart Wireless Multisensor Platform for an Optogenetic Brain Implant

Sensors (Basel). 2024 Jan 16;24(2):575. doi: 10.3390/s24020575.


Implantable cell replacement therapies promise to completely restore the function of neural structures, possibly changing how we currently perceive the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. One of the major clinical hurdles for the routine implementation of stem cell therapies is poor cell retention and survival, demanding the need to better understand these mechanisms while providing precise and scalable approaches to monitor these cell-based therapies in both pre-clinical and clinical scenarios. This poses significant multidisciplinary challenges regarding planning, defining the methodology and requirements, prototyping and different stages of testing. Aiming toward an optogenetic neural stem cell implant controlled by a smart wireless electronic frontend, we show how an iterative development methodology coupled with a modular design philosophy can mitigate some of these challenges. In this study, we present a miniaturized, wireless-controlled, modular multisensor platform with fully interfaced electronics featuring three different modules: an impedance analyzer, a potentiostat and an optical stimulator. We show the application of the platform for electrical impedance spectroscopy-based cell monitoring, optical stimulation to induce dopamine release from optogenetically modified neurons and a potentiostat for cyclic voltammetry and amperometric detection of dopamine release. The multisensor platform is designed to be used as an opto-electric headstage for future in vivo animal experiments.

Keywords: PSoC; Parkinson’s disease; amperometry; brain implant; cyclic voltammetry; dopamine; electrochemistry; impedance; neural stem cells; optogenetics.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Experimentation*
  • Animals
  • Brain
  • Dopamine*
  • Optogenetics
  • Prostheses and Implants


  • Dopamine