Background: The joint effects of polygenic risk and social determinants of health (SDOH) on coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States are unknown.
Methods: In 67,256 All of Us (AoU) participants with available SDOH data, we ascertained self-reported race/ethnicity and calculated a polygenic risk score for CHD (PRS CHD ). We used 90 SDOH survey questions to develop an SDOH score for CHD (SDOH CHD ). We assessed the distribution of SDOH CHD across self-reported races and US states. We tested the joint association of SDOH CHD and PRS CHD with CHD in regression models that included clinical risk factors.
Results: SDOH CHD was highest in self-reported black and Hispanic people. Self-reporting as black was associated with higher odds of CHD but not after adjustment for SDOH CHD . Median SDOH CHD values varied by US state and were associated with heart disease mortality. A 1-SD increase in SDOH CHD was associated with CHD (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.46) and incident CHD (HR=1.73; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.35) in models that included PRS CHD and clinical risk factors. Among people in the top 20% of PRS CHD , CHD prevalence was 4.8% and 7.8% in the bottom and top 20% of SDOH CHD , respectively.
Conclusions: Increased odds of CHD in self-reported black people are likely due to higher SDOH burden. SDOH and PRS were independently associated with CHD in the US. Our findings emphasize the need to consider both PRS and SDOH for equitable disease risk assessment.