The liver in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: emphasis on patients with intravenous drug abuse

Am J Gastroenterol. 1987 Mar;82(3):231-6.


To assess the spectrum of hepatic abnormalities in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we reviewed clinical, biochemical, and pathological material in 32 patients with AIDS. Eight-four percent of AIDS cases had a history of intravenous drug abuse. Ninety percent of AIDS patients has some liver biochemical abnormality at the first presentation of illness. During the course of AIDS, significant (p less than 0.05, paired Student's t test) rises in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin occurred, without rises in aminotransferases. Mean abnormalities were mild, reflecting approximately 2-fold increases over baseline. Liver failure was not believed to contribute to the death of any AIDS patient. Pathological findings in AIDS included specific infectious diagnosis in 26%, granulomas in 16%, hemosiderosis in 26%, nonspecific abnormalities in 39%, cirrhosis in 23%, and chronic active hepatitis in 3%. AIDS cases were also compared to 10 selected age, sex, and epidemiologically similar non-AIDS patients. Although granulomas or infections were not seen in our comparison group, only the incidence of chronic active hepatitis was significantly different between the groups. If only those with intravenous drug abuse were studied, then none of 24 AIDS patients versus four of eight non-AIDS cases (p less than 0.005) had chronic active hepatitis. AIDS patients with specific hepatic infections tended to have a higher alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase (p less than 0.05) than noninfected cases. However, substantial overlap existed, and no difference in hepatomegaly was noted. Ninety percent of AIDS patients were ingesting at least one potentially hepatotoxic drug. We conclude that AIDS patients have a high incidence of underlying hepatic abnormalities. However, clinical and biochemical abnormalities are similar in our selected liver biopsy patients with intravenous drug abuse with or without AIDS. As expected, AIDS patients have a higher incidence of hepatic granulomas and infections, but these patients were not clearly distinguishable from other AIDS cases. Histological examination showed a wide array of changes by light microscopy, but no specific lesion of AIDS was noted. The low incidence of chronic active hepatitis in this AIDS population may imply that the altered T lymphocyte function in AIDS could influence the course of liver disease in these patients.

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology*
  • Adult
  • Alcoholism / complications
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / blood
  • Bilirubin / blood
  • Female
  • Hepatitis, Chronic / pathology
  • Homosexuality
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Liver / pathology*
  • Liver Diseases / pathology
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications*


  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Bilirubin