A higher prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody occurred in 57.6% of women with recurrent abortion, but not in their male partners, compared to 33.7% of normal pregnant women (p less than 0.01) and 44.2% of infertile women (NS). The mean titer for the recurrent abortion group was not significantly elevated, compared to controls. Women with blocked fallopian tubes had the highest prevalence of elevated titers (p less than 0.01) and the highest mean titer (p less than 0.001). Despite multiple testing, no women or men were chlamydia culture-positive. The lack of isolation among patients with antibody could be due to cryptic infection at a site not amenable to culture or to inhibition by secretory IgA. There could also be nonspecific stimulation of chlamydial antibody caused by other infections such as mycoplasma. The presence, though at a low level, of antibody in culture-negative patients suggests chlamydia may not be directly associated with recurrent abortion but reflect previous exposure to chlamydia or an altered immune system.