Staining and bleaching susceptibility of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics with different thicknesses, translucencies, and fabrication methods

J Prosthet Dent. 2024 Mar;131(3):530.e1-530.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2024.01.002. Epub 2024 Jan 22.


Statement of problem: The influence of different thicknesses, translucencies, and fabrication methods on the spectrophotometric and topographical properties of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics (ZLSs) for dental restorations remains unclear.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of thicknesses, translucencies, and fabrication methods on the color stability, translucency parameter, opalescence parameter, whiteness stability, transmitted irradiance, light transmittance, opacity, gloss, and roughness of ZLSs exposed to coffee staining and bleaching treatments.

Material and methods: Two pressable ZLSs (VITA AMBRIA, VA and Celtra Press, CP) and 2 machinable ZLSs (VITA Suprinity, VS and Celtra Duo, CD) were examined at high translucency (HT) and low translucency (LT) levels in 2 thicknesses (n=160). The specimens were evaluated at baseline, after coffee staining, and after bleaching. The color stability (ΔE2000), translucency parameter (TP), opalescence parameter (OP), whiteness index (WID), and whiteness stability (ΔWID) were measured with a spectrophotometer. Transmitted irradiance (It), light transmission (T), and opacity (O) were obtained from a light-polymerizing unit and a polymerization light collection device. Roughness stability (ΔSa%) was determined with an optical profilometer, and gloss stability (ΔGU%) was recorded with a gloss meter. Data of ΔCIE2000, ΔWID, ΔSa%, and ΔGU% were analyzed by 4-way ANOVA, and data of the TP, OP, WID, It, T, and O were analyzed by repeated 4-way ANOVA (α=.05).

Results: VS-HT exceeded the ΔCIE2000 acceptability threshold after coffee staining and bleaching protocols. Pressable ZLSs exhibited greater color stability than machinable ZLSs. The 1-mm-thick VA, CP, and CD materials exceeded the ΔWID perceptibility threshold after bleaching. The highest TP and OP was displayed by the 1-mm-thick CP after bleaching. ΔGU increased after water storage and decreased after coffee staining and bleaching. ΔSa% significantly increased after bleaching (P<.05).

Conclusions: The color stability and other spectrophotometric properties of ZLSs depended on material thickness. The effects of ZLS fabrication methods and translucency levels on their measured properties were inconsistent. Subjecting 1-mm-thick ZLS materials to acidic media adversely impacted their stainability and surface texture.

MeSH terms

  • Ceramics / therapeutic use
  • Coffee*
  • Lithium*
  • Silicates
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Zirconium*


  • zirconium oxide
  • Coffee
  • Lithium
  • Silicates
  • Zirconium