Referenceless Nyquist ghost correction outperforms standard navigator-based method and improves efficiency of in vivo diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Magn Reson Med. 2024 Jun;91(6):2403-2416. doi: 10.1002/mrm.30012. Epub 2024 Jan 24.


Purpose: The study aims to assess the potential of referenceless methods of EPI ghost correction to accelerate the acquisition of in vivo diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DT-CMR) data using both computational simulations and data from in vivo experiments.

Methods: Three referenceless EPI ghost correction methods were evaluated on mid-ventricular short axis DT-CMR spin echo and STEAM datasets from 20 healthy subjects at 3T. The reduced field of view excitation technique was used to automatically quantify the Nyquist ghosts, and DT-CMR images were fit to a linear ghost model for correction.

Results: Numerical simulation showed the singular value decomposition (SVD) method is the least sensitive to noise, followed by Ghost/Object method and entropy-based method. In vivo experiments showed significant ghost reduction for all correction methods, with referenceless methods outperforming navigator methods for both spin echo and STEAM sequences at b = 32, 150, 450, and 600 smm - 2 $$ {\mathrm{smm}}^{-2} $$ . It is worth noting that as the strength of the diffusion encoding increases, the performance gap between the referenceless method and the navigator-based method diminishes.

Conclusion: Referenceless ghost correction effectively reduces Nyquist ghost in DT-CMR data, showing promise for enhancing the accuracy and efficiency of measurements in clinical practice without the need for any additional reference scans.

Keywords: EPI artifacts; Nyquist ghost; SE‐EPI.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Artifacts
  • Brain
  • Echo-Planar Imaging* / methods
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted* / methods
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Signal-To-Noise Ratio