Individualized brain mapping for navigated neuromodulation

Chin Med J (Engl). 2024 Mar 5;137(5):508-523. doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000002979. Epub 2024 Jan 24.


The brain is a complex organ that requires precise mapping to understand its structure and function. Brain atlases provide a powerful tool for studying brain circuits, discovering biological markers for early diagnosis, and developing personalized treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep brain stimulation, have revolutionized clinical therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the lack of fine-scale brain atlases limits the precision and effectiveness of these techniques. Advances in neuroimaging and machine learning techniques have led to the emergence of stereotactic-assisted neurosurgery and navigation systems. Still, the individual variability among patients and the diversity of brain diseases make it necessary to develop personalized solutions. The article provides an overview of recent advances in individualized brain mapping and navigated neuromodulation and discusses the methodological profiles, advantages, disadvantages, and future trends of these techniques. The article concludes by posing open questions about the future development of individualized brain mapping and navigated neuromodulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain
  • Brain Diseases*
  • Brain Mapping / methods
  • Deep Brain Stimulation*
  • Humans
  • Neuroimaging
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation / methods