Prostanoids in Cardiac and Vascular Remodeling

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2024 Mar;44(3):558-583. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.123.320045. Epub 2024 Jan 25.


Prostanoids are biologically active lipids generated from arachidonic acid by the action of the COX (cyclooxygenase) isozymes. NSAIDs, which reduce the biosynthesis of prostanoids by inhibiting COX activity, are effective anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic drugs. However, their use is limited by cardiovascular adverse effects, including myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, and heart failure. While it is well established that NSAIDs increase the risk of atherothrombotic events and hypertension by suppressing vasoprotective prostanoids, less is known about the link between NSAIDs and heart failure risk. Current evidence indicates that NSAIDs may increase the risk for heart failure by promoting adverse myocardial and vascular remodeling. Indeed, prostanoids play an important role in modulating structural and functional changes occurring in the myocardium and in the vasculature in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. This review will summarize current knowledge of the role of the different prostanoids in myocardial and vascular remodeling and explore how maladaptive remodeling can be counteracted by targeting specific prostanoids.

Keywords: heart failure; hypertension; myocardial infarction; prostaglandins; vascular remodeling.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Heart Failure* / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / chemically induced
  • Prostaglandins
  • Vascular Remodeling


  • Prostaglandins
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cyclooxygenase 2