Complex bacterial glycoconjugates drive interactions between pathogens, symbionts, and their human hosts. Glycoconjugate biosynthesis is initiated at the membrane interface by phosphoglycosyl transferases (PGTs), which catalyze the transfer of a phosphosugar from a soluble uridine diphosphosugar (UDP-sugar) substrate to a membrane-bound polyprenol-phosphate (Pren-P). The two distinct superfamilies of PGT enzymes (polytopic and monotopic) show striking differences in their structure and mechanism. We designed and synthesized a series of uridine bisphosphonates (UBPs), wherein the diphosphate of the UDP and UDP-sugar is replaced by a substituted methylene bisphosphonate (CXY-BPs; X/Y = F/F, Cl/Cl, (S)-H/F, (R)-H/F, H/H, CH3/CH3). UBPs and UBPs incorporating an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) substituent at the β-phosphonate were evaluated as inhibitors of a polytopic PGT (WecA from Thermotoga maritima) and a monotopic PGT (PglC from Campylobacter jejuni). Although CHF-BP most closely mimics diphosphate with respect to its acid/base properties, the less basic CF2-BP conjugate more strongly inhibited PglC, whereas the more basic CH2-BP analogue was the strongest inhibitor of WecA. These surprising differences indicate different modes of ligand binding for the different PGT superfamilies, implicating a modified P-O- interaction with the structural Mg2+. For the monoPGT enzyme, the two diastereomeric CHF-BP conjugates, which feature a chiral center at the Pα-CHF-Pβ carbon, also exhibited strikingly different binding affinities and the inclusion of GlcNAc with the native α-anomer configuration significantly improved binding affinity. UBP-sugars are thus revealed as informative new mechanistic probes of PGTs that may aid development of novel antibiotic agents for the exclusively prokaryotic monoPGT superfamily.