Demographic and clinical characteristics, seizure disorders, and antiepileptic drug usage in different types of corpus callosum disorders: a comparative study in children

Ital J Pediatr. 2024 Jan 25;50(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s13052-024-01589-x.

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics, types of seizure disorders, and antiepileptic drug usage among individuals with different types of corpus callosum disorders.

Methods: A total of 73 individuals were included in the study and divided into three groups based on the type of corpus callosum abnormality: hypoplasia (H), agenesis (A), and dysgenesis (D). Demographic data, including gender and preterm birth, as well as clinical characteristics such as seizure disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), severe developmental delay/intellectual disability, and other brain malformations, were analyzed. The types of seizure disorders and antiepileptic drugs used were also examined.

Results: The H group had the highest number of participants (n = 47), followed by the A group (n = 11) and the D group (n = 15). The A group had the highest percentage of males and preterm births, while the D group had the highest percentage of seizure disorders, other brain malformations, and severe developmental delay/intellectual disability. The A group also had the highest percentage of ADHD. Focal seizures were observed in all three groups, with the highest proportion in the A group. Focal impaired awareness seizures (FIAS) were present in all groups, with the highest proportion in the D group. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were observed in all groups, with the highest proportion in the H group. Different types of antiepileptic drugs were used among the groups, with variations in usage rates for each drug.

Conclusion: This study provided insights into the demographic and clinical characteristics, seizure disorders, and antiepileptic drug usage among individuals with different types of corpus callosum disorders. Significant differences were found between the groups, indicating the need for tailored management approaches. However, the study has limitations, including a small sample size and a cross-sectional design. Further research with larger sample sizes and longitudinal designs is warranted to validate these findings and explore the relationship between corpus callosum abnormality severity and clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); Clinical characteristics; Corpus callosum disorders (CCD); Demographic characteristics; Seizure disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Corpus Callosum
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Demography
  • Epilepsy* / drug therapy
  • Epilepsy* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intellectual Disability*
  • Male
  • Premature Birth*
  • Seizures / drug therapy
  • Seizures / epidemiology

Substances

  • Anticonvulsants