Fabrication and Characterization of an Innovative Silver- and Gadolinium-Doped Bioglass for Bone Regeneration

Cureus. 2023 Dec 25;15(12):e51086. doi: 10.7759/cureus.51086. eCollection 2023 Dec.

Abstract

Background Periodontal regeneration aims for the three-dimensional reconstruction of bone defects, and over the years, bone grafts with or without barrier membranes have provided us with promising results. Particulate bone grafts can be classified according to the source of procurement as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts. Bioglass, an innovative alloplast that uses silica particles as a matrix incorporated with calcium and phosphorus, has been extensively used as a propitious material for bone regeneration owing to its inherent osteogenic ability and biocompatibility but presents with various disadvantages such as slow degradation rate, low mechanical strength, and fracture resistance. A novel silver (Ag)-gadolinium (Gd)-doped bioglass was fabricated to improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and osteogenic ability when compared with bioglass (control). Materials and methods The Ag- and Gd-doped bioglass network was prepared and assessed for the morphological and structural properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-infrared (IR). The cytotoxicity of Gd and Ag-doped bioglass was assessed using the MG63 cell line through the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay at various concentrations and the absorbance of the solution was measured at 570 nm using a microplate reader. The osteogenic ability of the material was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen estimation. Results ATR-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and XRD were used to examine the bioglass network doped with Gd and Ag. ATR-IR exhibited classic silicate bands, whereas SEM indicated particles bigger than 5 μm. XRD analysis revealed the production of Na2Ca2Si3O9, Na2Ca4(PO4)2SiO4, and wollastonite. The excellent crystallinity of Na2Ca2Si3O9 provided the bioglass network with good mechanical characteristics. The Gd-Ag-bioglass did not exhibit any toxicity towards the living cells at increasing concentrations from 12.5 µg to 100 µg. The alkaline phosphatase activity was increased by 10% and the collagen estimation remained consistent with bioglass (control). Conclusion In conclusion, the fabrication of the novel Gd-Ag-doped bioglass shows good cytocompatibility and osteogenic ability and shows great potential to enhance bone regeneration.

Keywords: bioglass; bone regeneration; gadolinium; quality of life; silver.