X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) deficiency is an inborn error of immunity (IEI). Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is currently the only curative therapy available for XIAP deficiency. Granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is a common immune-related lung complication of IEIs. We present a 6-year-old boy with XIAP deficiency and GLILD. Computed tomography showed lung nodes but no symptoms. Before HCT, GLILD was not managed with immunosuppressive therapy, because he was asymptomatic. The HCT procedure was subsequently performed. The post-HCT course was uneventful; follow-up computed tomography on day 46 showed nodules had disappeared. HCT could potentially ameliorate GLILD like other inflammatory processes associated with the underlying IEIs.
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