Treatment recommendations for glycogen storage disease type IB- associated neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction with empagliflozin: Consensus from an international workshop

Mol Genet Metab. 2024 Mar;141(3):108144. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2024.108144. Epub 2024 Jan 17.


Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD Ib, biallelic variants in SLC37A4) is a rare disorder of glycogen metabolism complicated by neutropenia/neutrophil dysfunction. Since 2019, the SGLT2-inhibitor empagliflozin has provided a mechanism-based treatment option for the symptoms caused by neutropenia/neutrophil dysfunction (e.g. mucosal lesions, inflammatory bowel disease). Because of the rarity of GSD Ib, the published evidence on safety and efficacy of empagliflozin is still limited and does not allow to develop evidence-based guidelines. Here, an international group of experts provides 14 best practice consensus treatment recommendations based on expert practice and review of the published evidence. We recommend to start empagliflozin in all GSD Ib individuals with clinical or laboratory signs related to neutropenia/neutrophil dysfunction with a dose of 0.3-0.4 mg/kg/d given as a single dose in the morning. Treatment can be started in an outpatient setting. The dose should be adapted to the weight and in case of inadequate clinical treatment response or side effects. We strongly recommend to pause empagliflozin immediately in case of threatening dehydration and before planned longer surgeries. Discontinuation of G-CSF therapy should be attempted in all individuals. If available, 1,5-AG should be monitored. Individuals who have previously not tolerated starches should be encouraged to make a new attempt to introduce starch in their diet after initiation of empagliflozin treatment. We advise to monitor certain safety and efficacy parameters and recommend continuous, alternatively frequent glucose measurements during the introduction of empagliflozin. We provide specific recommendations for special circumstances like pregnancy and liver transplantation.

Keywords: Dapagliflozin; Empagliflozin; Glycogen storage disorder 1b; Hypoglycemia; Inflammatory bowel disease; Neutrophil dysfunction; SGLT2-inhibitor; SGLT2i; Treatment, neutropenia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiporters / metabolism
  • Benzhydryl Compounds*
  • Consensus
  • Glucosides*
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I* / complications
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I* / drug therapy
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Neutropenia* / drug therapy
  • Neutropenia* / etiology
  • Neutrophils / metabolism


  • empagliflozin
  • SLC37A4 protein, human
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Antiporters
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Glucosides

Supplementary concepts

  • Glycogen Storage Disease IB