Exopolysaccharides of Paenibacillus polymyxa: A review

Int J Biol Macromol. 2024 Mar;261(Pt 1):129663. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2024.129663. Epub 2024 Jan 24.


Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus, which is a rod-shaped, spore-forming gram-positive bacterium. P. polymyxa is a source of many metabolically active substances, including polypeptides, volatile organic compounds, phytohormone, hydrolytic enzymes, exopolysaccharide (EPS), etc. Due to the wide range of compounds that it produces, P. polymyxa has been extensively studied as a plant growth promoting bacterium which provides a direct benefit to plants through the improvement of N fixation from the atmosphere and enhancement of the solubilization of phosphorus and the uptake of iron in the soil, and phytohormones production. Among the metabolites from P. polymyxa, EPS exhibits many activities, for example, antioxidant, immunomodulating, anti-tumor and many others. EPS has various applications in food, agriculture, environmental protection. Particularly, in the field of sustainable agriculture, P. polymyxa EPS can be served as a biofilm to colonize microbes, and also can act as a nutrient sink on the roots of plants in the rhizosphere. Therefore, this paper would provide a comprehensive review of the advancements of diverse aspects of EPS from P. polymyxa, including the production, extraction, structure, biosynthesis, bioactivity and applications, etc. It would provide a direction for future research on P. polymyxa EPS.

Keywords: Applications; Bioactivity; Exopolysaccharide; Paenibacillus polymyxa; Production; Purification.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Paenibacillus polymyxa* / metabolism
  • Paenibacillus* / metabolism
  • Plant Development
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
  • Plants / metabolism


  • Plant Growth Regulators