Background: Iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (IFP) incidence is increasing with increase in diagnostic and therapeutic angiography, and so, the less invasive percutaneous thrombin injection (PTI) is the most widely used treatment. Moreover, studies that minimize PTI complications and highlight therapeutic effects are lacking.
Objectives: This study performed in vitro thrombosis modeling of pseudoaneurysms and analyzed thrombosis within and thromboembolism outside the sac during thrombin injection.
Methods: We evaluated PTI in terms of thrombin injection location (at the junction of the IFP sac and neck, the center, and the dome, located farthest from the neck of the sac), thrombin injection time (5 and 8 seconds), and blood flow rate (ranging from 210 mL/min to 300 mL/min). Porcine blood was used as the working fluid in this study.
Results: Thrombin injection at the junction of the IFP sac and the pseudoaneurysm neck led to less thrombosis within the sac but substantial thrombi consistently outside the sac, whereas thrombin injected at the sac center mostly led to complete thrombosis within the sac, preventing further blood flow into the sac and reducing likelihood of thrombi outside the sac. A longer thrombin injection time enhanced the therapeutic effect and decreased the possibility of thromboembolism. Thromboembolism occurred more frequently at flow rates of >240 mL/min.
Conclusion: The thrombin injection site in a pseudoaneurysm significantly influences thrombogenesis within and thromboembolism outside the sac. Thus, slow and deliberate injection of thrombin into the center of the sac could potentially reduce complications and enhance treatment efficacy.
Keywords: femoral artery pseudoaneurysm; in vitro techniques; percutaneous thrombin injection; porcine blood; thrombosis modeling.
Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.