Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a rare genetic disorder that presents clinically as a primary immunodeficiency. Clinical presentation of APDS includes severe, recurrent infections, lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, and other cancers, autoimmunity and enteropathy. Autosomal dominant variants in two independent genes have been demonstrated to cause APDS. Pathogenic variants in PIK3CD and PIK3R1, both of which encode components of the PI3-kinase, have been identified in subjects with APDS. APDS1 is caused by gain of function variants in the PIK3CD gene, while loss of function variants in PIK3R1 have been reported to cause APDS2. We conducted a review of the medical literature and identified 256 individuals who had a molecular diagnosis for APDS as well as age at last report; 193 individuals with APDS1 and 63 with APDS2. Despite available treatments, survival for individuals with APDS appears to be shortened from the average lifespan. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for APDS showed the conditional survival rate at the age of 20 years was 87%, age of 30 years was 74%, and ages of 40 and 50 years were 68%. Review of causes of death showed that the most common cause of death was lymphoma, followed by complications from HSCT. The overall mortality rate for HSCT in APDS1 and APDS2 cases was 15.6%, while the mortality rate for lymphoma was 47.6%. This survival and mortality data illustrate that new treatments are needed to mitigate the risk of death from lymphoma and other cancers as well as infection. These analyses based on real-world evidence gathered from the medical literature comprise the largest study of survival and mortality for APDS to date.
Keywords: APDS; Activated PI3K delta syndrome; CVID; Common variable immune deficiency; PI3-kinase; PID; PIK3CD; PIK3R1; Primary immune deficiency.
© 2024. The Author(s).