mRNA vaccine boosters and impaired immune system response in immune compromised individuals: a narrative review

Clin Exp Med. 2024 Jan 27;24(1):23. doi: 10.1007/s10238-023-01264-1.


Over the last 24 months, there has been growing evidence of a correlation between mRNA COVID-19 vaccine boosters and increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and other pathologies. Recent works have added possible causation to correlation. mRNA vaccine boosters may impair immune system response in immune compromised individuals. Multiple doses of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines may result in much higher levels of IgG 4 antibodies, or also impaired activation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The opportunity for mRNA vaccine boosters to impair the immune system response needs careful consideration, as this impacts the cost-to-benefit ratio of the boosters' practice.

Keywords: CD4 + T cells; CD8 + T cells; COVID-19; IgG 4 antibodies; Vaccines.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Immune System
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • RNA, Messenger
  • mRNA Vaccines*


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • mRNA Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • RNA, Messenger