Integrated multi-omics and genetic analyses reveal molecular determinants underlying Arabidopsis snap33 mutant phenotype

Plant J. 2024 May;118(4):1016-1035. doi: 10.1111/tpj.16647. Epub 2024 Jan 28.


The secretory pathway is essential for plant immunity, delivering diverse antimicrobial molecules into the extracellular space. Arabidopsis thaliana soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor SNAP33 is a key actor of this process. The snap33 mutant displays dwarfism and necrotic lesions, however the molecular determinants of its macroscopic phenotypes remain elusive. Here, we isolated several new snap33 mutants that exhibited constitutive cell death and H2O2 accumulation, further defining snap33 as an autoimmune mutant. We then carried out quantitative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showing that numerous defense transcripts and proteins were up-regulated in the snap33 mutant, among which genes/proteins involved in defense hormone, pattern-triggered immunity, and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat receptor signaling. qRT-PCR analyses and hormone dosages supported these results. Furthermore, genetic analyses elucidated the diverse contributions of the main defense hormones and some nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat receptor signaling actors in the establishment of the snap33 phenotype, emphasizing the preponderant role of salicylic acid over other defense phytohormones. Moreover, the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat receptor signaling proteins in the snap33 mutant was confirmed by immunoblotting analyses and further shown to be salicylic acid-dependent. Collectively, this study unveiled molecular determinants underlying the Arabidopsis snap33 mutant phenotype and brought new insights into autoimmunity signaling.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; ETI; MAPK; NLR; PTI; SNAP33; autoimmunity; proteomics; salicylic acid; transcriptomics.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis Proteins* / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins* / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis* / genetics
  • Arabidopsis* / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Multiomics
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
  • Plant Immunity* / genetics
  • Proteomics
  • Salicylic Acid / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction