Lymphoma involvement of the eyelid and eye

Clin Dermatol. 2024 Jan 26:S0738-081X(24)00009-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2024.01.009. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Lymphomas of the eye and ocular adnexa are rare lymphoproliferative diseases of the ocular and ocular adnexal tissue. The incidence of these diseases has been rapidly increasing over the past few decades. The exact pathogenesis remains unknown, but it is postulated to be multifactorial and includes genetic aberrations, epigenetic and environmental factors, infectious agents, and chronic antigenic stimulation. The majority of ocular and ocular adnexal lymphomas are of B-cell origin, except for eyelid lymphomas, which are more often of T-cell type. Lymphoproliferative diseases of ocular and ocular adnexal structures are either primary, when they arise in the eye, orbit, lacrimal gland, eyelid, and/or conjunctiva, or secondary extranodal manifestation of systemic lymphoma. Diagnosis is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, dermatologists, oncologists, and radiation oncologists.