Polyphenol Contents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract and Fractions of Sonneratia Caseolaris Fruits from Ben Tre Province in Vietnam

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Jan 28;34(1):94-102. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2304.04019. Epub 2023 Sep 30.


Plants contain a large number of phytochemical components, many of which are known as bioactive compounds and responsible for the expression of various pharmacological activities. The extract of Sonneratia caseolaris fruit collected in Vietnam was investigated for its total phenolic and total flavonoid contents using methanol solvent and different fractions of S. caseolaris fruits (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous). GC-MS analysis was conducted to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. Further, the antibacterial activity was tested in vitro on bacterial isolates, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, using the disc diffusion method on tryptic soya agar (TSA) medium. The methanol extract showed high total flavonoid (82.3 ± 0.41 mg QE/g extract) and phenolic (41.0 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g extract) content. GC-MS of the methanol extract and different fractions of S. caseolaris fruits detected 20 compounds, principally fatty alcohols, fatty acids, phenols, lipids, terpenes derivatives, and carboxylic acids derivatives. A 50 mg/ml concentration of methanol extract had the strongest antibacterial activity on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. Furthermore, ethyl acetate, aqueous, and n-butanol fractions inhibited S. aureus and B. subtilis the most. The results of the present study suggested that the fruits of S. caseolaris are rich sources of phenolic compounds that can contribute to safe and cost-effective treatments.

Keywords: Antibacterial; GC–MS; Sonneratia caseolaris; flavonoid; phenolic.

MeSH terms

  • 1-Butanol / pharmacology
  • Acetates*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / analysis
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Escherichia coli
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Fruit* / chemistry
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Methanol / chemistry
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Polyphenols* / analysis
  • Polyphenols* / pharmacology
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Vietnam


  • ethyl acetate
  • Polyphenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Methanol
  • 1-Butanol
  • Antioxidants
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Phenols
  • Flavonoids
  • Acetates