Psychometric Properties of the Iowa Fluoride Study Oral Health Questionnaire in Mexican Adolescents

Cureus. 2023 Dec 27;15(12):e51165. doi: 10.7759/cureus.51165. eCollection 2023 Dec.

Abstract

Background and objective: The perception of quality of life about health status is subjective; assessment of the impact includes well-being while eating, speaking, smiling, interacting with others, and feeling good about the esthetic appearance of teeth and mouth. The objective of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt and determine the validity and reliability of the Mexican version of the Iowa Fluoride Study Oral Health for adolescents.

Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 240 Mexican adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The questionnaire was translated, back-translated, and administered through the Google Forms platform. The cultural adaptation consisted of the evaluation of the grammatical, conceptual, and linguistic equivalences. The evaluation of the utility and acceptability was carried out through an analysis of semantic equivalence. The utility of the questionnaire was also evaluated by analyzing its grammatical readability. Reliability tests, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), factor analysis, and Pearson's correlation were performed.

Results: The mean age of all participants was 16.4±1.4; 65.3% (n=158) were female. Face validity was considered adequate. The wording of the objective and instructions of the questionnaire were improved. The confidentiality assurances were highlighted. The questions were clear, understandable, and pertinent, and they showed adequate syntax. The INFLESZ index corresponds to a "fairly easy" level of readability. In the quantitative validation, the correlation of items was greater than 0.4. The KMO was 0.930 (p=0.001), and Bartlett sphericity was 2466.5 (p=0.001). Through the exploratory factorial analysis, we evaluated the emotional well-being (12 items), social welfare (five items), and oral symptoms (OS) (three items) dimensions. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α=0.942).

Conclusion: The culturally translated and adapted questionnaire is valid and reliable for use in research on Mexican adolescents.

Keywords: adolescents; cultural adaptation; oral health; quality of life; validation.