Samples of the polyHEMA-collagen composites with varying collagen content have been implanted into the popliteal region of rats. Three, six and twelve months after the implantation, calcification of the implanted material was determined using a radioactive indicator. At the same time, the implants and surrounding tissue were examined histologically. The degree of calcification of the implants was dependent on the collagen content; it was more pronounced with a higher amount of collagen. The composites with 30% (w/w) or more collagen were biodegraded during the long-term implantation. It is suggested that the composites containing less than 20% (w/w) of fibrillar collagen are used for biomedical applications and that those with a higher collagen content for the in vitro studies.