Spectrum of Diabetic Neuropathy: New Insights in Diagnosis and Treatment

Annu Rev Med. 2024 Jan 29:75:293-306. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-043021-033114.


Diabetic neuropathy is a highly prevalent complication of diabetes. It consists of a broad range of neuropathic conditions, such as distal symmetric polyneuropathy and various forms of autonomic neuropathies involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. Prevention or diagnosis in early stages of disease is crucial to prevent symptomatic onset and progression, particularly in the absence of current disease-modifying therapies. In this review, we describe the four main types of diabetic neuropathy. We review current understanding with respect to diagnosis and treatment while highlighting knowledge gaps and future directions.

Keywords: autonomic neuropathy; cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; diabetic neuropathy; diabetic peripheral neuropathy; gastroparesis; urogenital neuropathy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / therapy
  • Humans