Pharmacological Update and Emerging Treatments of Pulmonary Hypertension

Cardiol Rev. 2024 Jan 31. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000647. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as elevated pressures in the pulmonary artery and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization classifies PH into 5 distinct groups based on underlying etiology, pathology, and modality of treatment. Therapeutic approach may be challenging due to the extensive spectrum of causes and underlying mechanisms mediating PH. The 5 groups include pulmonary arterial hypertension (group 1), PH secondary to left heart disease (group 2), PH secondary to chronic lung disease (group 3), chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (group 4), and PH due to miscellaneous causes (group 5). Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of group 1 PH, there is a continued need to develop new therapies for all types of PH. Additionally, most treatments currently available improve functional capacity and symptoms but without a significant benefit in mortality. In this review, we aim to describe the various etiologies of PH and their established pharmacotherapies, as well as expand on emerging therapeutic options for each group.