CRISPR-Cas9 In Vivo Gene Editing of KLKB1 for Hereditary Angioedema

N Engl J Med. 2024 Feb 1;390(5):432-441. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2309149.


Background: Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic disease that leads to severe and unpredictable swelling attacks. NTLA-2002 is an in vivo gene-editing therapy based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9. NTLA-2002 targets the gene encoding kallikrein B1 (KLKB1), with the goal of lifelong control of angioedema attacks after a single dose.

Methods: In this phase 1 dose-escalation portion of a combined phase 1-2 trial of NTLA-2002 in adults with hereditary angioedema, we administered NTLA-2002 at a single dose of 25 mg, 50 mg, or 75 mg. The primary end points were the safety and side-effect profile of NTLA-2002 therapy. Secondary and exploratory end points included pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy determined on the basis of investigator-confirmed angioedema attacks.

Results: Three patients received 25 mg of NTLA-2002, four received 50 mg, and three received 75 mg. At all dose levels, the most common adverse events were infusion-related reactions and fatigue. No dose-limiting toxic effects, serious adverse events, grade 3 or higher adverse events, or clinically important laboratory findings were observed after the administration of NTLA-2002. Dose-dependent reductions in the total plasma kallikrein protein level were observed between baseline and the latest assessment, with a mean percentage change of -67% in the 25-mg group, -84% in the 50-mg group, and -95% in the 75-mg group. The mean percentage change in the number of angioedema attacks per month between baseline and weeks 1 through 16 (primary observation period) was -91% in the 25-mg group, -97% in the 50-mg group, and -80% in the 75-mg group. Among all the patients, the mean percentage change in the number of angioedema attacks per month from baseline through the latest assessment was -95%.

Conclusions: In this small study, a single dose of NTLA-2002 led to robust, dose-dependent, and durable reductions in total plasma kallikrein levels, and no severe adverse events were observed. In exploratory analyses, reductions in the number of angioedema attacks per month were observed at all dose levels. (Funded by Intellia Therapeutics; number, NCT05120830.).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Angioedema
  • Angioedemas, Hereditary* / blood
  • Angioedemas, Hereditary* / drug therapy
  • Angioedemas, Hereditary* / genetics
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems*
  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein / therapeutic use
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Gene Editing* / methods
  • Humans
  • Plasma Kallikrein / genetics
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein
  • KLKB1 protein, human
  • Plasma Kallikrein

Associated data