[Intraoperative optical coherence tomography guided precise corneal suture in the treatment of acute keratoconus]

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2024 Feb 11;60(2):147-155. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112142-20231016-00145.
[Article in Chinese]

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to observe the clinical efficacy of precise suturing of posterior elastic layer fissures guided by intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) in conjunction with anterior chamber puncture and drainage, and corneal thermokeratoplasty for the treatment of severe acute edematous keratoconus. Methods: Non-randomized controlled trial. Data were collected for a study involving 31 cases of acute edematous keratoconus patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Shandong Eye Hospital between June 2017 and July 2021. Among them, there were 30 male and 1 female patients, with an age range of 11 to 32 years and a mean age of (19.80±5.80) years. Eighteen patients in the study group underwent precise suturing of posterior elastic layer fissures guided by intraoperative OCT, in combination with anterior chamber puncture and drainage, and corneal thermokeratoplasty. Thirteen patients in the control group did not undergo suturing. Preoperative visual acuity, corneal edema diameter, corneal thickness, and posterior elastic layer fissure length were collected. Evaluation was performed using slit lamp microscopy, anterior segment OCT, and other methods to assess the time of initial postoperative corneal edema resolution and closure of the posterior elastic layer fissure. Deep lamellar keratoplasty was performed 2 to 4 weeks after edema resolution, and the corneal bed scar repair and visual acuity of the two groups were compared. Results: In the suturing group, the corneas of all 18 patients were accurately sutured to the deep stromal layer near the posterior elastic layer. The time for corneal edema resolution was 2.50 (1.00, 6.25) days in the suturing group and 7.00 (6.00, 10.50) days in the control group. The fissure healing time was 7.50 (7.00, 12.00) days in the suturing group and 14.00 (9.00, 14.00) days in the control group. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). After 2 weeks, the central corneal thickness decreased to (529.80±174.50) μm in the suturing group and (612.00±205.12) μm in the control group. The suturing group showed accurate corneal suturing to the deep stromal layer near the posterior elastic layer, resulting in central corneal flattening, closure of voids in the stroma, and a significant decrease in corneal thickness. All 18 patients in the suturing group successfully completed deep lamellar keratoplasty, with 6 cases (6/18) experiencing mild graft bed leakage during surgery but without affecting the deep lamellar keratoplasty. One year postoperatively, the visual acuity (logarithm of the minimum resolution angle) was 0.23±0.12 in the suturing group and 0.33±0.11 in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions: In the treatment of severe acute edematous keratoconus, precise suturing of posterior elastic layer fissures guided by intraoperative OCT, in conjunction with anterior chamber puncture and drainage, and corneal thermokeratoplasty, can rapidly alleviate corneal edema and promote the healing of posterior elastic layer fissures. This approach achieves better visual outcomes for subsequent lamellar keratoplasty surgeries. The use of intraoperative OCT guidance allows accurate positioning of the posterior elastic layer fissure in terms of location, direction, and depth of corneal stromal voids, thereby assisting surgeons in precise suturing.

目的: 观察术中相干光层析成像术(OCT)引导的精确角膜后弹力层裂口缝合术联合前房穿刺放液术、角膜热成型术治疗严重急性水肿期圆锥角膜的临床疗效。 方法: 非随机对照试验。收集2017年6月至2021年7月间于山东省眼科医院行手术治疗的31例急性水肿期圆锥角膜患者资料进行研究,其中男性30例,女性1例,年龄(19.80±5.80)岁(11~32岁)。其中18例应用术中OCT判断角膜后弹力层裂口的大小、位置和撕裂方向,行术中OCT引导的精确角膜后弹力层裂口缝合联合前房穿刺放液术、角膜热成型术的患者作为缝合组,与另外13例未进行缝合的患者进行对照。收集患者术前视力、角膜水肿直径、角膜厚度、后弹力层裂口长度等数据,采用裂隙灯显微镜、前节OCT等对两组患者首次手术后角膜水肿消退时间及后弹力层闭合情况等进行评估。水肿消退后2~4周进一步行深板层角膜移植术,比较两组患者术后角膜植床瘢痕修复情况及视力。 结果: 缝合组18例患者术中角膜均准确缝合至近后弹力层的深基质层。缝合组和对照组术后角膜水肿消退时间分别为2.50(1.00,6.25)和7.00(6.00,10.50)d,后弹力层裂口愈合时间分别为7.50(7.00,12.00)和14.00(9.00,14.00)d,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。术后2周时,缝合组和对照组中央角膜厚度分别下降至(529.80±174.50)和(612.00±205.12)μm。缝合组患者术中的角膜缝合均准确达深基质层的近后弹力层,术后可见角膜中央压平,基质内空洞闭合,角膜厚度明显降低。缝合组18例患者全部顺利完成深板层角膜移植术,其中6例(6/18)发生术中角膜植床轻度植床渗水但未影响深板层角膜移植术。缝合组和对照组术后1年视力(最小分辨角的对数)分别为0.23±0.12和0.33±0.11,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 结论: 术中OCT引导的精确角膜后弹力层裂口缝合联合前房穿刺放液术、角膜热成型术治疗严重急性水肿期圆锥角膜,能够迅速减轻角膜水肿、促进后弹力层裂口的愈合,为后期板层角膜移植手术赢得更佳的视力。应用术中OCT引导能够准确定位角膜后弹力层裂口的位置、方向及角膜基质空洞的深度,有助于手术者精准缝合。.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Cornea / surgery
  • Corneal Edema* / surgery
  • Corneal Transplantation*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Keratoconus* / surgery
  • Male
  • Sutures
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods
  • Young Adult