Clinical Presentation, Classification, and Outcomes of Cardiogenic Shock in Children

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2024 Feb 6;83(5):595-608. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.11.019.


Background: Despite growing cardiogenic shock (CS) research in adults, the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of children with CS are lacking.

Objectives: This study sought to describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, hospital course, risk factors, and outcomes of CS among children hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).

Methods: We examined consecutive ADHF hospitalizations (<21 years of age) from a large single-center retrospective cohort. Patients with CS at presentation were analyzed and risk factors for CS and for the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality were identified. A modified Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions shock classification was created and patients were staged accordingly.

Results: A total of 803 hospitalizations for ADHF were identified in 591 unique patients (median age 7.6 years). CS occurred in 207 (26%) hospitalizations. ADHF hospitalizations with CS were characterized by worse systolic function (P = 0.040), higher B-type natriuretic peptide concentration (P = 0.032), and more frequent early severe renal (P = 0.023) and liver (P < 0.001) injury than those without CS. Children presenting in CS received mechanical ventilation (87% vs 26%) and mechanical circulatory support (45% vs 16%) more frequently (both P < 0.001). Analyzing only the most recent ADHF hospitalization, children with CS were at increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared with children without CS (28% vs 11%; OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05-3.45; P = 0.033). Each higher CS stage was associated with greater inpatient mortality (OR: 2.40-8.90; all P < 0.001).

Conclusions: CS occurs in 26% of pediatric hospitalizations for ADHF and is independently associated with hospital mortality. A modified Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions classification for CS severity showed robust association with increasing mortality.

Keywords: cardiogenic shock; children; heart failure; mortality; pediatrics.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Heart Failure* / epidemiology
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / epidemiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / etiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / therapy