Management of Checkrein Deformity

Clin Orthop Surg. 2024 Feb;16(1):1-6. doi: 10.4055/cios23229. Epub 2024 Jan 15.


Checkrein deformity is characterized by the dynamic status of the hallux, in which flexion deformity is aggravated by ankle dorsiflexion and relieved by ankle plantarflexion. In most cases, a checkrein deformity occurs secondary to trauma or following surgery. It has been suggested that the flexor hallucis longus tendon tethers or entraps scar tissue or fracture sites. Improvement with conservative treatment is difficult once the deformity has already become entrenched, and surgical management is usually required in severe cases. Various surgical options are available for the correction of checkrein deformities. It includes a simple release of adhesion at the fracture site; lengthening of the flexor hallucis longus by Z-plasty at the fracture site combined with the release of adhesion; lengthening of the flexor hallucis longus by Z-plasty at the midfoot, retromalleolar, or tarsal tunnel area; and flexor hallucis longus tenotomy with interphalangeal arthrodesis for recurrent cases. This review aimed to summarize the overall etiology, relevant anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment of checkrein deformities described in the literature.

Keywords: Foot deformities; Hallux; Tendon entrapment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ankle Injuries* / surgery
  • Foot Deformities, Acquired* / complications
  • Foot Deformities, Acquired* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Tendon Injuries* / surgery
  • Tendons / surgery
  • Tenotomy