IL-32 production from lung adenocarcinoma cells is potentially involved in immunosuppressive microenvironment

Med Mol Morphol. 2024 Feb 6. doi: 10.1007/s00795-023-00378-5. Online ahead of print.


Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from several kinds of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the significance of IL-32 in lung adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics analysis. IL-32 was positive in cancer cells of 21 cases (9.2%) of total 228 cases. Increased IL-32 gene expression was linked to worse clinical course in TCGA analysis, however, IL-32 expression in immunohistochemistry was not associated to clinical course in our cohort. It was also found that high IL-32 expression was seen in cases with increased lymphocyte infiltration. In vitro studies indicated that IFN-γ induced gene expression of IL-32 and PD1-ligands in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. IL-32, especially IL-32β, also induced overexpression of PD1-ligands in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Additionally, Cancer-cell-derived IL-32 was elevated by stimulation with anticancer agents. In conclusion, IL-32 potentially induced by inflammatory conditions and anticancer therapy and contribute to immune escape of cancer cells via development the immunosuppressive microenvironment. IL-32 might be a target molecule for anti-cancer therapy.

Keywords: Adenocarcinoma; IL-32; Lung cancer; Macrophage; Tumor microenvironment.