Chronic and neurotropic: A paradigm-challenging case of dengue virus encephalitis in patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection

Clin Infect Dis. 2024 Feb 6:ciae061. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciae061. Online ahead of print.


A 32-year-old female with advanced HIV infection presented to an Australian hospital with subacute but worsening symptoms of encephalitis. Metagenomic sequencing and Dengue NS3 antigen staining of brain tissue confirmed active Dengue virus (DENV) encephalitis. The most recent possible DENV exposure was months prior in West Africa, indicating chronicity.

Keywords: Dengue virus; Encephalitis; case report; human immunodeficiency virus; metagenomic sequencing.