Tolerogenic Nano-/Microparticle Vaccines for Immunotherapy

ACS Nano. 2024 Feb 7. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.3c11647. Online ahead of print.


Autoimmune diseases, allergies, transplant rejections, generation of antidrug antibodies, and chronic inflammatory diseases have impacted a large group of people across the globe. Conventional treatments and therapies often use systemic or broad immunosuppression with serious efficacy and safety issues. Tolerogenic vaccines represent a concept that has been extended from their traditional immune-modulating function to induction of antigen-specific tolerance through the generation of regulatory T cells. Without impairing immune homeostasis, tolerogenic vaccines dampen inflammation and induce tolerogenic regulation. However, achieving the desired potency of tolerogenic vaccines as preventive and therapeutic modalities calls for precise manipulation of the immune microenvironment and control over the tolerogenic responses against the autoantigens, allergens, and/or alloantigens. Engineered nano-/microparticles possess desirable design features that can bolster targeted immune regulation and enhance the induction of antigen-specific tolerance. Thus, particle-based tolerogenic vaccines hold great promise in clinical translation for future treatment of aforementioned immune disorders. In this review, we highlight the main strategies to employ particles as exciting tolerogenic vaccines, with a focus on the particles' role in facilitating the induction of antigen-specific tolerance. We describe the particle design features that facilitate their usage and discuss the challenges and opportunities for designing next-generation particle-based tolerogenic vaccines with robust efficacy to promote antigen-specific tolerance for immunotherapy.

Keywords: Tolerogenic vaccines; antigen-specific tolerance; autoimmune diseases; immune response; microparticles; nanoparticles; regulatory T cells; vaccine delivery strategy.

Publication types

  • Review