Patient Subtyping Analysis of Baseline Multi-omic Data Reveals Distinct Pre-immune States Predictive of Vaccination Responses

bioRxiv [Preprint]. 2024 Jan 22:2024.01.18.576213. doi: 10.1101/2024.01.18.576213.


Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underpin diverse vaccination responses is a critical step toward developing efficient vaccines. Molecular subtyping approaches can offer valuable insights into the heterogeneous nature of responses and aid in the design of more effective vaccines. In order to explore the molecular signatures associated with the vaccine response, we analyzed baseline transcriptomics data from paired samples of whole blood, proteomics and glycomics data from serum, and metabolomics data from urine, obtained from influenza vaccine recipients (2019-2020 season) prior to vaccination. After integrating the data using a network-based model, we performed a subtyping analysis. The integration of multiple data modalities from 62 samples resulted in five baseline molecular subtypes with distinct molecular signatures. These baseline subtypes differed in the expression of pre-existing adaptive or innate immunity signatures, which were linked to significant variation across subtypes in baseline immunoglobulin A (IgA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer levels. It is worth noting that these significant differences persisted through day 28 post-vaccination, indicating the effect of initial immune state on vaccination response. These findings highlight the significance of interpersonal variation in baseline immune status as a crucial factor in determining vaccine response and efficacy. Ultimately, incorporating molecular profiling could enable personalized vaccine optimization.

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