Nanoparticles for Thrombus Diagnosis and Therapy: Emerging Trends in Thrombus-theranostics

Nanotheranostics. 2024 Jan 1;8(2):127-149. doi: 10.7150/ntno.92184. eCollection 2024.

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is one of the chief factors that cause ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and venous thromboembolism. The elements that speed up thrombosis include nutritional consumption, physical activity, and oxidative stress. Even though the precise etiology and pathophysiology remain difficult topics that primarily rely on traditional medicine. The diagnosis and management of thrombosis are being developed using discrete non-invasive and non-surgical approaches. One of the emerging promising approach is ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging. The advancement of nanomedicines offers concentrated therapy and diagnosis, imparting efficacy and fewer side effects which is more significant than conventional medicine. This study addresses the potential of nanomedicines as theranostic agents for the treatment of thrombosis. In this article, we describe the factors that lead to thrombosis and its consequences, as well as summarize the findings of studies on thrombus formation in preclinical and clinical models and also provide insights on nanoparticles for thrombus imaging and therapy.

Keywords: animal models; imaging; nanoparticles; pathophysiology; thrombosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Nanoparticles* / therapeutic use
  • Precision Medicine
  • Thrombosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Thrombosis* / therapy
  • Ultrasonography / methods