Metasurface-Assisted Quantum Nonlocal Weak-Measurement Microscopy

Phys Rev Lett. 2024 Jan 26;132(4):043601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.043601.


In standard quantum weak measurements, preselection and postselection of quantum states are implemented in the same photon. Here we go beyond this restrictive setting and demonstrate that the preselection and postselection can be performed in two different photons, if the two photons are polarization entangled. The Pancharatnam-Berry phase metasurface is incorporated in the weak measurement system to perform weak coupling between probe wave function and spin observable. By introducing nonlocal weak measurement into the microscopy imaging system, it allows us to remotely switch different microscopy imaging modes of pure-phase objects, including bright-field, differential, and phase reconstruction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nonlocal weak-measurement scheme can prevent almost all environmental noise photons from detection and thus achieves a higher image contrast than the standard scheme at a low photon level. Our results provide the possibility to develop a quantum nonlocal weak-measurement microscope for label-free imaging of transparent biological samples.