Molecular Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Development in the Precision Medicine Era: A Comprehensive Review

Cancers (Basel). 2024 Jan 25;16(3):523. doi: 10.3390/cancers16030523.


The progression of prostate cancer (PCa) relies on the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) by androgens. Despite efforts to block this pathway through androgen deprivation therapy, resistance can occur through several mechanisms, including the abnormal activation of AR, resulting in castration-resistant PCa following the introduction of treatment. Mutations, amplifications, and splicing variants in AR-related genes have garnered attention in this regard. Furthermore, recent large-scale next-generation sequencing analysis has revealed the critical roles of AR and AR-related genes, as well as the DNA repair, PI3K, and cell cycle pathways, in the onset and progression of PCa. Moreover, research on epigenomics and microRNA has increasingly become popular; however, it has not translated into the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Additionally, treatments targeting homologous recombination repair mutations and the PI3K/Akt pathway have been developed and are increasingly accessible, and multiple clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this comprehensive review, we outline the status of PCa research in genomics and briefly explore potential future developments in the field of epigenetic modifications and microRNAs.

Keywords: cancer immunology; drug resistance; epigenomics; immune checkpoint inhibitor; mutagenesis; next-generation sequencing; non-coding RNAs; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors; prostate cancer; signal pathways.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.