Comprehensive analysis of diel rhythmic expression of the medaka toll-like receptor gene family

Dev Comp Immunol. 2024 May:154:105143. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2024.105143. Epub 2024 Feb 9.


Several immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptors (TLR), are associated with circadian rhythms in mammals. However, information on the circadian rhythmic expression of TLRs in fish is limited. In this study, we aimed to analyze the regulation of diel oscillations in the expression of TLR genes in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The expression analysis revealed diel expression patterns of tlr1, tlr5m, tlr21, and clock genes (bmal1 and clock1) under a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle. The clock gene response element (E-box) was identified in the transcriptional regulatory regions of tlr1, tlr5m, and tlr21. Moreover, overexpressed bmal1 and clock1 enhanced expression levels of tlr1, tlr5m, and tlr21 in medaka embryo (OLHdrR-e3) cells. The expression of tlr1, tlr5m, and tlr21 was significantly decreased in OLHdrR-e3 after generating a bmal1 knockdown using a morpholino oligo. These results indicate the regulation of the diel rhythmic expression of several fish TLRs by clock genes.

Keywords: Clock genes; Diel rhythmic expression; Medaka; Tlr gene family.

MeSH terms

  • ARNTL Transcription Factors / genetics
  • ARNTL Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mammals
  • Oryzias* / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 1 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptors / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism


  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • Toll-Like Receptor 1
  • Toll-Like Receptors