New insights into Chlorella vulgaris applications

Biotechnol Bioeng. 2024 May;121(5):1486-1502. doi: 10.1002/bit.28666. Epub 2024 Feb 11.


Environmental pollution is a big challenge that has been faced by humans in contemporary life. In this context, fossil fuel, cement production, and plastic waste pose a direct threat to the environment and biodiversity. One of the prominent solutions is the use of renewable sources, and different organisms to valorize wastes into green energy and bioplastics such as polylactic acid. Chlorella vulgaris, a microalgae, is a promising candidate to resolve these issues due to its ease of cultivation, fast growth, carbon dioxide uptake, and oxygen production during its growth on wastewater along with biofuels, and other productions. Thus, in this article, we focused on the potential of Chlorella vulgaris to be used in wastewater treatment, biohydrogen, biocement, biopolymer, food additives, and preservation, biodiesel which is seen to be the most promising for industrial scale, and related biorefineries with the most recent applications with a brief review of Chlorella and polylactic acid market size to realize the technical/nontechnical reasons behind the cost and obstacles that hinder the industrial production for the mentioned applications. We believe that our findings are important for those who are interested in scientific/financial research about microalgae.

Keywords: biocement; biodiesel; biofuel; bioplastic; biorefinery; wastewater treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biofuels
  • Biomass
  • Chlorella vulgaris*
  • Humans
  • Microalgae*
  • Wastewater
  • Water Purification*


  • Wastewater
  • Biofuels