Rationale and plans are described for a collaborative case-control study of large bowel cancer among Chinese-Americans in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area and among Chinese in Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China. A common protocol and questionnaire will be used during personal interviews of approximately 400 Chinese and 300 Chinese-American patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum and 2,100 Chinese and Chinese-American controls. Controls will be matched to patients on age, sex, and community of residence. The information requested from subjects will permit testing of hypotheses relating colorectal cancer risk to: dietary factors, including intake of fat (saturated and unsaturated), animal protein, fiber, and vitamins A and E and ascorbic acid; physical activity levels and body mass index; reproductive factors among women; history of bowel disease; and family history of cancer. The information requested of Chinese-American subjects will also permit testing of hypotheses relating cancer risk to such migrant factors as United States versus Chinese nativity, duration of residence in the United States, and Chinese province of ancestry. These factors will be tested for associations with cancers of the colon and rectum separately and with cancers of the large intestine as a whole. We will examine sex and geographic differences in relative risks for etiologic factors, location of tumors within the large bowel, histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma, and frequency of accompanying polyps.