Carotid intima-media thickness in surgically or conservatively managed patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Feb 12:dgae053. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgae053. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Context: Current evidence of cardiovascular (CV) risk in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is still inconsistent.

Objective: To prospectively investigate changes of early atherosclerosis in patients with PHPT undergoing parathyroidectomy (PTx) or conservative management, according to Consensus criteria.

Methods: Biochemical parameters of PHPT, CV risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure-BP-, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glycosilated hemoglobin, and HOMA-IR), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were assessed in 52 consecutive postmenopausal PHPT patients both at baseline and ≥24 months after surgery (PTx: n = 22) or conservative management (no-PTx: n = 30).

Results: At baseline, PTx and no-PTx showed comparable age, BMI, renal function, 25(OH)D levels, and did not differ for CV risk factors, IMT and plaques, nor for the prevalence of smoking, diabetes mellitus, antihypertensive or statin therapy, while differing for all parameters characterizing PHPT. Follow-up length in PTx was longer (p = 0.004) than in no-PTx. Parameters characterizing PHPT significantly improved ≥24 months after surgery, whereas in no-PTx serum phosphate slightly decreased and PTH increased. Systolic and diastolic BP increased at follow-up in both groups, while other CV risk factors did not significantly vary. In PTx IMT did not significantly vary after surgery (0.85 ± 0.14 to 0.89 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.366), whereas it significantly increased in no-PHPT (0.80 ± 0.18 to 0.93 ± 0.23 mm, p = 0.008), even adjusting for BP values. Plaque prevalence and incidence did not significantly differ in the two groups.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that in postmenopausal PHPT patients subclinical atherosclerosis could be halted by PTx, whereas it worsens over time in not operated patients with milder disease.

Keywords: intima-media thickness; parathyroidectomy; plaque; primary hyperparathyroidism.