The Association and Utility of Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure in Predicting the Development of and in Managing Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

Cardiol Rev. 2024 Feb 13. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000668. Online ahead of print.


Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a significant complication in patients undergoing coronary angiography, and its development is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) provides one index of left heart filling status. An elevated LVEDP can reflect volume overload or abnormal diastolic function and indicates a cardiac disorder. Data on the association between an elevated LVEDP and CIN are limited and have had conflicting results. We systematically searched the databases PubMed, Embase, and Scopus for full-text articles from database inception to May 2022. Studies were included if they evaluated the association between a high LVEDP and the incidence of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The study was registered in the PROSPERO CRD42022334070. A second search in PubMed identified randomized controlled trials using LVEDP to guide fluid administration during coronary procedures. Four studies were identified that used LVEDP to classify patients into groups to determine the association between the level and the development of CIN. In these studies, 240 patients of 2441 patients (9.8%) developed CIN. One study found no association between LVEDP levels and the development of CIN. Two studies found an increased frequency of CIN in patients with elevated levels using 2 cutoff points for LVEDP, ≥20 mm Hg and >30 mm Hg. One study found that lower LVEDP levels (5-14 mm Hg) were associated with the development of CIN. Three randomized control trials used LVDEP levels to manage fluid administration in patients undergoing coronary procedures; only one study found that the use of these levels to guide fluid administration resulted in better outcomes. In patients undergoing coronary angiography, an elevated LVEDP was not consistently associated with increased risk of CIN, and using LVEDP levels to guide fluid administration during these procedures did not always improve outcomes in comparison to other protocols. The use of LVEDP levels can help classify patients with cardiac disorders but does not necessarily provide an adequate description of the hemodynamic patterns in these patients to predict or prevent CIN in patients undergoing angiography.