Anticandidal effectiveness of greenly synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles against candidal pathogens

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2023;58(14):1097-1110. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2024.2315922. Epub 2024 Feb 13.


Drug resistance of pathogenic candidal strains to conventional antifungal agents represents a significant health issue contributing to high morbidity worldwide. Hence, the aim of the current study focused on evaluating the antifungal and synergistic activities of the green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles formulated using Laurus nobilis leaf extract. The biogenic ZnONPs were hexagonal in shape with average particle size diameter of 37.98 nm and pure crystalline structure as detected by XRD data. The highest antifungal activity of biogenic ZnONPs was detected against Candida parapsilosis strain demonstrating relative inhibitory zone diameters of 17.13 ± 0.74 and 25.78 ± 0.47 mm, at the concentrations of 100 and 200 µg/disk, respectively. Moreover, the biogenic ZnONPs demonstrated the highest synergistic activity with clotrimazole antifungal agent against Candida glabrata followed by Candida auris strains. MTT assay revealed that the biogenic ZnONPs showed low toxicity demonstrating relative IC50 value of 774.45 µg/mL against normal lung fibroblast cells which further affirmed their biosafety for application. In conclusion, the bioinspired ZnONPs could be utilized for the formulation of effective antifungal agents against drug resistant candidal strains and also could be combined with antifungal agents to boost their antifungal efficiency.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis; antifungal; clotrimazole; drug resistance; green synthesis; synergism.

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology
  • Metal Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Zinc Oxide* / chemistry
  • Zinc Oxide* / toxicity


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Zinc Oxide